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Los Macheteros


LOS MACHETEROS
The Macheteros dance probably is the most famous dance of the Beni region within and outside Bolivia. Its origins date from the colonial period. Although it represents the resurrection of Christ and his Ascension to Heaven the interpretation of the biblic history is strictly indigenous.
Each dancer carries a wooden sword (tumoré ti yucuqui) in his right hand and is dressed with a long white shirt with fringes. On the head they carry a big headdress called progi and made of the feathers of the amazone parabas bird. On the headdress they fix the leather of an amazonic predator. The feet are covered with the seed of paichachíes, which also serve as percussion instruments

Waca Waca


WACA WACA
For the native population the arrival of the european cattle was an impact which led to choreografies like "waka-wakas" or "waka-thinti" (sowing potatoes), "waka tokhoris" (dancing bulls) and "tinti-kauallu" (bullfight with picadores).
The waca-thintis tried to represent daily agricultural life, the keeping of the sheep, the work of the milkwomen and bullfights using the muscial background of pinkillos and wancaras. For the natives the bullfights were a real novelty, which made them imagine and create the waca tokhori or dancing bull dance. In order to ridicule the taurine activities the indigenous people also incorporated cows, a kusillo (some sort of clown) and a jilakata (indigenous authority) in the dance.
As it happens to the majority of the bolivian dances, "evolution" has reached the dancing bulls and due to the massification of the cows, the silver coats and the big quantity of skirts for the mamatallas, initially a sign of good omen for the sowing season, were forgotten.
El varón lleva un capirote con pluma y cubierto de tul en la cabeza, un ponchillo, el toro o waca en armazón de cuero de buey rodeado por un pollerín que disimula los pies. Los bailarines que se identifican con el animal a través del disfraz, sujetan y manejan el armazón al ritmo de la música y en una actitud de torear.Men dancing as bulls or cows carry a big leather frame with horns representing the cattle. The legs are covered with a skirt fixed on the frame and during the dance the whole thing is moved in rhythm with the music.
The jilakata, equiped with a stick, a hat made of sheep wool and a tipical poncho, commands the dancing group. The bullfighter or kausalla carrys a sword and the tipical outfit of the Spanish bullfighters. The buffoon finally has to keep the animals together. The milkwomen use up to 25 skirts and a jar used by the milk sellers.
According to the pentatonic music the milkwomen pivet and thus show the multitude of their multicolored and richly adorned skirts.

Carnaval Vallegrandino


CARNAVAL VALLEGRANDINO
Vallegrande se caracteriza por su topografía accidentada con valles, montañas y varias serranías.Su clima es templado, poco variable y su principal producción es la Agricultura y sus campos son apropiados para el cultivo de especies de flora ornamental.Los pobladores de esta región fueron grandes comerciantes que unieron rutas entre el occidente y oriente bolivianos. También son conocidos por su gran afición a la abundante comida y los festejos carnavaleros de cada año.
Mucha gente carnavalera para esas fechas visita Vallegrande, ya que piensan que el carnaval es más bonito, por las tradiciones que estos llevan. - Algo muy tradicional en las festividades es la tojpina (pequeña orquesta local) la cual interpreta cuecas, kaluyos y carnavalitos. Las coplas que se cantan contestando las mujeres a los hombres suelen tener letras bastante pícaras y le dan el condimento al carnaval vallegrandino...

Taquirari


TAQUIRARI
The Taquirari is the rhythm and dance most characteristic for the Departments of Santa Cruz, Beni and Pando, which form the so called Oriente Boliviano.
Although the dance has been present since the early 19th century, its actual origins are unknown. It is believed that the name derives from the moxenian word takirikire which means arrow.The Taquirari is danced in couples facing each other and holding hands. It is a vivid and joyful dance with clear indigenous influence

Huayño


Huayño (Quechua: wayñu, Spanish: huaiño, huayño) is a genre of popular Andean music, especially common in Peru ,Bolivia, and Argentina. It is a combination of traditional music of the rural folk in the area with popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including flute, harp, panpipe, accordion, saxophone, charango, lute, violin, guitar, harmonica and mandolin. Some elements of huayño originate in the music of the pre-Columbian Andes. Huayño utilizes a distinctive rhythm, in which the first beat is stressed and followed by two short beats.
Huayño is an important Andean genre of dance and music of pre-Hispanic origin and at present very wide spread among the Andean peoples. Huayño adopts diverse forms, according to the local or regional traditions and in certain forms it represents the popular adherence to the culture of the land. Huayño is an excellent example of typical Andean dance.
The dance begins with the man offering his right arm to the women as an invitation for her to dance. Alternatively, he puts his handkerchief on the shoulder of the woman. Next, the partners walk along an enclosure, and finally they dance. The dance consists of an agile and vigorous stamping of the feet during which the man follows the woman, opposite to front, touching her with his shoulders after having turned around, and only occasionally he touches his right arm to the left hand of his partner while both swing to the rhythm of the music. His movements are happy and roguish.
The musical rhythm consists of a base pentatónica from binary rhythm, structural characteristic that has allowed this genre to turn into the base of a series of hybrid rhythms, from the chicha up to the Andean rock. The instruments that intervene in the execution of the Huayño are the quena, the small guitar, the mandolin, the harp and the violin.
In some variants of the huayno there are typical bands which add instruments such as the trumpets, the saxophone or the accordion. On the other hand, although they are very different genres, in the popular sense, the huayño is more akin to the matelot top of what it feigns, since he remembers it this saying of mountain matelot top: "There is no matelot top without huayño / not huayño without matelot top / cholita pollera green / for you goes the third one."
(Quechua: wayñu, Spanish: huaiño, huayño) is a genre of popular Andean music, especially common in Peru ,Bolivia, and Argentina. It is a combination of traditional music of the rural folk in the area with popular urban dance music. High-pitched vocals are accompanied by a variety of instruments, including flute, harp, panpipe, accordion, saxophone, charango, lute, violin, guitar, harmonica and mandolin. Some elements of huayño originate in the music of the pre-Columbian Andes. Huayño utilizes a distinctive rhythm, in which the first beat is stressed and followed by two short beats.
Huayño is an important Andean genre of dance and music of pre-Hispanic origin and at present very wide spread among the Andean peoples. Huayño adopts diverse forms, according to the local or regional traditions and in certain forms it represents the popular adherence to the culture of the land. Huayño is an excellent example of typical Andean dance.
The dance begins with the man offering his right arm to the women as an invitation for her to dance. Alternatively, he puts his handkerchief on the shoulder of the woman. Next, the partners walk along an enclosure, and finally they dance. The dance consists of an agile and vigorous stamping of the feet during which the man follows the woman, opposite to front, touching her with his shoulders after having turned around, and only occasionally he touches his right arm to the left hand of his partner while both swing to the rhythm of the music. His movements are happy and roguish.
The musical rhythm consists of a base pentatónica from binary rhythm, structural characteristic that has allowed this genre to turn into the base of a series of hybrid rhythms, from the chicha up to the Andean rock. The instruments that intervene in the execution of the Huayño are the quena, the small guitar, the mandolin, the harp and the violin.
In some variants of the huayno there are typical bands which add instruments such as the trumpets, the saxophone or the accordion. On the other hand, although they are very different genres, in the popular sense, the huayño is more akin to the matelot top of what it feigns, since he remembers it this saying of mountain matelot top: "There is no matelot top without huayño / not huayño without matelot top / cholita pollera green / for you goes the third one."
HUAYÑO SICURI
Huayno, also spelled Huaiño or Wayno, is widely recognized as the most representative dance of the Andes, with pre-Columbian (Quechua and Aymara) origins fused with Western influences. While historians speculate that it may have come from an Inca funeral dance, today it is purely festive.
Huayno music is played on quena, charango, drums, and violin, however, there are dozens of regional variations, some of which involve marching bands, trumpets, saxophones and accordions. The musical structure stems from a pentatonic scale (scale of five notes) with a binary rhythm, (2/4 time). This structure has made this genre the basis of a series of hybrid rhythms, running from huayno to Andean rock

Cueca




This rhythm is a lively form with a relatively strict structure, which may also be accompanied by a couples' courting dance. The origins of the dance are perhaps linked to the Spanish "seguidilla" and the actual form of the dance resembles the modern spanish "Sevillana", complete with the four phases of the courtship: the Meeting, the Seduction, the Dispute, and the Reconciliation. Also in a three or six beat format, the underlying accents are similar but not quite the same as in the Bailecito. There is, however a closer semblance to the "chacarera". The cueca has a number of regional variants from Bolivia and Chile, however the most commonly found is variant from western Argentina.
Cueca Boliviana Every region in Bolivia is characterized by the music and dance which reflects the department´s tipical spirit: In Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz and Tarija Cueca and Bailecito belong to the most representative dances.However, the Cueca has been transformed into a national dance important for the traditional folklore of the whole country. Rhythm slightly changes according to the region and so there exists a cueca cochbambina, chuquisaquena, pacena and chapaca which also show diferences in speed.
The piquaresque creole dance rose during the republic period, at the same time as a popular and an elegant salon dance. It is danced in couples and a very important part of the choreografy is the language of the handkerchieves used in a game of seduction and provocation. The Cueca consists in three parts: introduction, Quimba and Jaleo









Suri Sikuri


The Suri Sicuri emerged from andine communities like the Mollos, Aymaras and Lipis. In the region of La Paz it was performed in the provinces of Camacho, Ingavi and Pacajes in order to celebrate a wedding or the construction of a new house.
Its roots date back to pre-columbine times. The name of the dance refers to the hunt of the suri or ñandu (American ostrich) and to the musicians accompanying the dance by playing the andine pan flute, called sicu. The sicu-players themselves are called sicuris.

In the dance the ostrich is portrayed twice: on the one hand the dancers represent the movement of the animal and on the other hand they also evoque some of the bird´s aparicion by wearing enormous headdresses up to two meters wide and made of the suri´s feathers. The male dancers also wear a chest cover originally made of a tiger´s skin and black trousers while the female dancers use brightly coloured skirts.

Tarqueada


In the Aymara people of Bolivia, the main festivity of the work concluded and the blooming of the potato fields sown in Anata (Amusement) or in the Andean carnival and the main musical instrument is tarqa.The tarqa is built out of a wood called Largo, in three measurements, the licu or tayca, which is the longest or the biggest; the mala or malta is of medium size; the ch'ili is the smallest; the percussion instrument are the bass drum and the drums.The tarqa is an instrument that they begin to play on November 2, after rendering homage to the dead and ancestors, in the event that is called deburying of the t arqa; its playing as a musical instrument usually ends on the Temptation Sunday in some places, but in very few places, its playing continues until Easter or the beginning of harvest time.The tarqa is an instrument in which its melodies it receives from nature, to beg for clemency from this same nature vis-à-vis the droughts, the excessive rain drops or any other climate phenomenon that may affect the crops. Finally, it is with this instrument that they celebrate the Anata or the amusement of the promise of a good harvest that is announced by the blooming of the sown fields of potato.The dancers after pijchar (chewing coca leaf) a little of coca leaf and chállar (dropping alcohol down for benediction) his house, his crops, and animals with alcohol, capture euphoria and in a common way in a single and amorphous group of men and women the fiesta (party) starts where nobody stands out neither more nor less, where at the rhythm of the tarqa that Andean fiesta is made so different in its motivations and beliefs."In this carnival my tarqa says to the nature, thanks for giving food, garment and the happiness of living".The tarqa is played in the celebration of Marka Qullo, to ask the nature the drops of rain vis-à-vis the drought or any other climate phenomenon that affects the crops. Then in the occasion of the investiture of the authorities as it is played and danced at the delivery of the authority baton to the jilacata, recognizing the merits of the cycle of command that finishes. It is also played on Christmas, New Year, family feast, the co- mothers and co-fathers day, reaching in this way the feast of Candelaria on February 2, where, in some of the places, this feast means a feast of the new potato breeding, when the aymaras would dig out the potato sown fields to see how the produce is developing and thus present offerings to Pachamama and the spirits.The dance of this instrument is the "tarqueada" it is danced in the main feast when the blooming of the sown fields is celebrated which is in Anata or Andean Carnival, when the happiness enjoyment and games are manifest, a real manifestation of a celebration and the beginning of the period of harvest. During the festivity of carnival a ceremony that is of the Challaku is performed, a custom of spilling Llumpaga or Chicha with a Ch'rea (a half an orange shaped mungler) to the four cardinal points as an offering or invitation to Pachamama, linked to the celebration with a cult to fertility.For the Anata, the community prepares a "tarqueada", a new melody is inspired in the wrinchaya, and diacahcu with the ceremony of the "sereno" man receives from nature that new melody with which he will beg for good crops, settling a close relation with the Pachamama.On carnival day, after chewing the coca leaf and throwing benediction with alcohol on houses, crop fields, and on animals, the feast continues with the participation of all communities ayllus. The dancers and the musicians accompany the pasantes (the feast offers) at the tune of the tarqas with the groups of men and women with whom the temptation days were passed and the cacharpaya (leave-taking); the playing of the music by tarqa may last, in some communities, until Saturday day before Easter or the beginning of harvest time.

Diablada


The rebellion dance: La Diablada (the devil-dancing group)
This dance shows a deep Cosmo vision stemmed in the Andean cult of the mean "supay" of "huari", god of the mountains and of the devil of the catholic ythurgy.The catholic religion implanted by the Spanish Crown in its colonies was designed by an educational system for the conversion of adult indians, "purifying" their "pagan"customs through, for instance auto sacramental and processions or commencement offering dances.The conquistadores wanted to christianize the indians; they practiced the cathechesis of Christianism against the "paganism". However, the mutual religion influence caused the peculiar syncretism in our society.
Whom to ask for help?
Uprooted of their ayllus (communities), the mitayos (pawns) for the service of the conquistadores, would invoke their legendary god of the profundities Huari in the galleries, exuded in the owner of the spots or El Tio (the Uncle).It so happened that Tio was converted into a benefactor deity of the Mitayo, who would beg him for protection and wealth, offering in exchange, chicha (a drink), alcohol and coca leaf.With the passing of the years, the Andean man adopted the catholic faith as a strategy of survival rejoining native festivities, as the "jatun poccoy" blooming) with the European carnival brought by the conquistadores.The dramatized fight between San Miguel Arch Angel and Candelaria Virgin in front of the devils and satans has a double interpretation.In the christian sense, it would result being the exponent of the seven capital sins of the court of "Luzbel rebel Prince".However, as a "satire" to the conquistadors the devil dancing groups implicates a rebellion of the miner mitayo that disguised as a devil to act against his oppressors, he would use the religions dance for expressing his anxiety of freedom and the struggle for acquiring it.The Mitayo had scarce licenses and one of the exceptions was to get out of his underground work in carnival, while the orgies tolerated by the church, would prosper in the city.This would reach a wantonness of his repressed inhibitions by the mita (forceful duty), and the vindication of his lost dignity.
A prehistory with Horns:
Since prehistorically days, as per a legendary thought and uru zootist, the demonological phenomenon takes us to the ancient "chullpas jakes", whose descendants are our urus fore parents.The footprint should be looked for with the aid of archeology. Within the "zoolatric" cult of the ancient Orureños (native from Oruro city) stone-sculpted heads of pumas (kind of Andean tiger), deers, and mainly llamas (kind of Andean ruminants typical to these regions) with hornet shapes are to be found.It also corresponds to this period the legend of the strength, fire, and the mountains god Huari who wanted to destroy the Urus for their virtual degeneration. Therefore, the hell supporters of Huari, had to be defeated by the ñusta; the toad the viper, the lizard, turned into stone and the army of ants condemned into simple sand dunes.According to legend, the defeated Huari took refuge for good in the inside of the mountains where there are rich minerals, for not ever going out again.
Four Stages:
In the historical period of the devil dancing groups, there is a stage of transculturization that initiates with the foundation in Villa de San Felipe de Austria in 1.606, when the shock of two cultures was the norm, although the ancestral remains turned out to survive.Another stage, that of religious dualism (1.789 - 1.900) is explained when the transfiguration of the Andean Pachamama into the Virgin of Socavon widens the religious syncretism while the third powerful ingredient germinates: the replying fact of relieving of the profound psychic repressions.Out of this situation, it crops up the tradition of the famous bandit Anselmo Belarmino, the Chiru-Chiru or Nina-Nina that in spite of his misdeeds helped poor people and revered the Virgin of Candelaria in his shelter in the Pie of the Gallo mountain.During the stage of the social diffusion of this dance (1.900 - 1.950), the tradition of the devil dancing groups followed its way together with other kinds of dances in the festivity of Virgin of Socavon. It is the period of the highest prosperity for the appearance of other kinds of dances in a process of disappearance and the creation of Institutions like the Gran Traditional and Authentical Devil Dance Group of Oruro that was born in 1.904.After the Chaco War, there spurted up other groups : The Traditional Folkloric Devil Dancing: Group of Oruro (1.943), Círculo de Artes y Letras Devil Dancing Group (1.943), Artistic and Cultural Fraternity Devil Dancing Group (1.944).Its members belonged to the well-doing middle class, called the "pijes" or "Kharas"it is the beginning of the incursion of the decent strata in the mineworkers dancing to turn it into a brilliant folkloric ballet. The indian began losing his performing role; the "khara" took his place.

Khantus


Music and Dance Kantus
Kantus is one of the most important dances of the Kantus Sartañanis, being performed in most of the cantons such as Niño Corin, Curva, Charazañi, Chajaya, Amarete, Mataru, Iscanuwaya, Kata and others.
Music and Dance
The music and the dance of the K'antu for the region that performs and by the type of the melody that characterizes it, it can be deduced that it has a ceremonial ostrich fledgling that is to say, that it is quite linked to the rites and ceremonies of different kinds, and reasons why they performed the Kallawayas, and therefore the customs and cultural manifestations of these towns. The instruments that are played are The Sicus group, Putu Wankaras, Chimisco and the Pututu.
By Couples
The dance of Kántu basically by couples, for the conception of the complementary duality of gender existing in our communities, not preventing that single person to participate in the dance. All movements and steps that characterize this dance are similar to the movements taken by Katari (Viper).

Kallawayas




Wisdom of Mollo Culture Kallawaya
Despite their foreing condition among the Incas, their fame as the holders of science, allowed the kallawayas to enjoy a high rank due to their command of the vegetal animal and mineral pharmacy knowledge and the treatment of multiple sicknesses.Their long treks through the Andean world and its surrounding taking health to the ayllus, they are recalled by the kallawaya dance that is present in the carnival in Oruro and they characterize for their agility for traversing the mountains.These herbolary physicians of the region of Charazani, Curva, Niño Korin, K'anlaya, Chajaya, and so on, northwest of La Paz, they all belong to the so-called Mollo Culture, a direct descendant of Tihuanacu culture.For that reason, even today, despite the mutations and mixture of races, the children of the Mollo Culture or Kallawaya keep their distinctive traits: for instance, whether they speak quechua (runa simi = people's tongue) or aymara (jake-aru), they descend from a noble lineage and they hold a higher status.
A secret language:
Many ethno linguists state that the language that the kallawaya uses is but the secret language of the Incas (machay jucay) that the "earful" royal Inca would speak among them, using the common quechua for the rest of the people: hatum runas (a big wings) and llajta runas (town people) of middle class; yanaconas for the servitude and mitamaes or pawns.The Kallawayas learnt that the privileged language due to the deep confidence that the Incas bestowed their "kamilis" or healers. After the conquest, the native physicians returned to the kollasuyo, taking along the secret language, which, they now use in their pray and ritual practices.
Natural Medicine:
In the "khatus"of the present kallawas, all sorts of charms, talismans and offerings are sold for mythical characters of the Andean cosmogony.The vast variety of medical plants used in aromatic smokings and curative poultice come from the different ecological "niches": the plains, the valleys, yungas, plateau, mountain ranges and even the coats: leeches, seashells and guano (dung).All this "khapakcacherio" (stand) has a full acceptation as popular medicine. The kallawayas are famous as naturist physicians "yatiris"and "chamakanis"or malign beings and the "sajras"of demoniacal character.
Ceremonial Dance:
This entire world has been transported to the dance of the kallawayas, whose rich dance and costumary is the expression of the "yatiri" (healer) with his relevant status inside the community and of profound respect in the Andean world.The choreography is notable for the "llantucha" of "suri" that is the awning made of ostrich feathers that the itinerant physician uses for covering himself against sunburn or the raindrop in his long treks carrying spiritual and material health to the ayllus.His long treks stretch along and over the seas, where, loaded with his "khapchos" or "male" bags full of herbs, mixtures, and talismans charges against sicknesses considered incurable.The agile and synchronized jumps express the physical display of the itinerant physician, overcoming, in his trekking over brooks, mountains and gullies.

Tobas


They renew to great jumps Tobas
An ancient story says that the Tobas would have arrived at Collasuyu with the Inka Tupac Yupanqui, but it is believed that they came wearing their typical costumes attracted by the fame of the Virgin of Candelaria.Afterwards, a dancing group was formed which would take part in the religious parties with a disguise of wilderness costume.
Costume and Steps
The tobas wear a skirt a small poncho a long turban with feathers at cuffs and ankles covering. The cambas that would parade almost naked now wear pants and a poncho with tassels on both costumes.And the chipayas wear ponchos and pants slightly modified from the ones they wear daily.The most expensive item of the get - up is the turban the cuffs and ankle covering items.The feathers, if they are of parihuanas (water birds); they will cost bolivians 120 and those of an ostrich, a bit more. A turban is made up with the feather of twenty parihuanas, and an ankle covering item or cuff item, with ten feathers each, which adds up to the price of the costume to over Bolivians Five Thousand.The changes of steps are: those of "Bolivar" (quick with regular jumps); cambas (quite agile, with jumps of over a meter high); the chucu-chucu, the merriest rhythm that the public likes much; it is danced on the foot toes and almost on the knees which produces cramps to the dancer, The "cullahui"jump-very scarcely danced nowadays-would match the pinchullos (a flute kind of musical instruments) very well.

Phujllay


In the ancient yampara carnival: Phujllay
In a historical background that integrates different ancient festivities, the carnival in tarabuco known as "pujllay" yampara, keeps its folkloric essence almost without any change expressed in its heavy dancing, its melancholic tone of music and the solitary singing of the peasant who tries to express his love for a maid.He recalls at the same time the circles or rounds of peasants and mongrels (mestizos) of Chuquisaca, who go over the towns on foot or on horseback visiting houses where there is chicha and pukaras and their respective party sponsors.In Phujllay, the pukaras or pre-inkan forts are converted into silver arches adorned with white flags, foliages and crops of maize, flowers, potatoes, produce, beehives, meat, drinks and so on.In this carnival there coincide the prehispanic festivity of "Jatun Pocoy" (grat growth) and Pauker Waray (Sacrifice to Sun Afterwards; it was united to the commemoration of the victory of the yamparaes over the Spaniards in the Jumbate Battle on March 12th. 1816.
The attire
One has to buy "gallos" (cocks) or spurs from the blacksmith; that they make up out of percussion musical instruments fit to the big ojotas (kind of sandals) of the dancers. The higher the ojota, the more dexterous the dancer will be that is the one who wears them.The leggings of abundant colors and figures that cover only the heel as high as the shinbone the tight-fitting jacket is a kind of blouse made of black cloth and fit with wide sleeves.The pants are two kinds, one is short made of black wool cloth and another long made of white woolen cloth they are quite wide from the legs down to the shin bones.The leather worker makes the belly- band pierced with hundreds of ringlets and repousée leather with figures of the zone, which serves as a purse. From the pita, threading hundreds of bronze little bells hang tied up with woolen string braids of bright colors.
A conical hat
The yampara makers of conical hats similar to the masks of the conquistadores, are richly adorned with flowers. The tailors make the coifs embroidered with thread of woolen strings and allegories of the peasant carnival, which hang from the head of the phujllay down shis back.The uncku pallado is a small poncho (picked up at the collar) with figures and allegories of the region; under are others of red, black, yellow horizontal stripings, besides short multicolor flounces.The chuspas (coca leaf containers) made by women, constitute the pride of the family. To complete this luxurious finery they carry on two fine silken handkerchiefs: one in the hand to keep the rhythm and /or the other fixed behind down the back with the corner downwards.
The Musicians and Singers
Other peasants of humble costumes play the pentatonic melody of pujllay, besides the new huayños composed. The "sencka" tanch'ana, a big flute whose holes are quite below relative of the mouthpiece waits for them which makes the musician to adopt a unique and an uncomfortable position. The presence of "machu tockoro" or idiophone is noted, whose mouthpiece recovers a leather flower ornaments and a great condor feather.At their turn, the singers sing a melody of love for a maid and coplas (popular songs) of gratefulness to everything that surrounds them, animals, fruit, and so on.Nubile and eminent weavers able to offer the most ostentation loom to cause admiration and love women also show dark costumes with indiscriptible lijllas (large square bundlers) and a'pus phallados and thick'anchados (adorned) with big topos (pins), phaca monteras (small masks), multicolor ribbons and chaskas (coins) adorning her headfront, and in her hand, a white wiphala (banner).
Burial of Phujllay
It was a custom to pretend this burial of the yampara carnival on temptation Sunday (last day of Carnival) of a poorly dressed peasant, whom the groups would chase throwing on him phullas (ash and flour and cattle shed). After leaving the young man abandoned, who would take the pretension of death of carnival, they would go back home with unnatural laments for the burial.

Llamerada


Llamerada: (Llama drivers dance)
Llamerada is one of the oldest dances of the bolivian folklore; it belongs to the Aymara nation in its origins. Its original name is "karuwani".Its link with the llama and the auchenics in general dates back to the pre-agriculture epoch, over forty centuries ago. Since those times, the llama gives food, transport and cover. That is why it appears painted in caves and ceramics and sculpted in stone.For many pre-colombian cultures, dance was art and magic, for the dancing to be produced in reality; is why the llama herder dancers would imitate the scenes of herding in order to keep around the herd.The llama herder dancing has changed in its magic sense and innovations were imposed in the choreography, costumes, participants and music. However, it has not stopped representing the relationship between the Andean man and the auchenids.
The Andean round - Up
According to tradition, this dance goes back to a human fence around the auchenid herds people would push the animals to press together into a ring until they would reach them with their hands. The llamas, alpacas, vicuñas caught were sheared; the old or injured animals would become food stuff. The round up finished, the "huilancha"or the sacrifice of the propitiatory llama was made, whose blood was offered to gods.
Postilions and herders
According to another tradition, it recalls the Incan postilions in charge of herding the auchenids. It also rememorates the herders of colonial Potosi.Under the current interpretation, it is a mimicking dance, because it tries to imitate the daily life of the herders and those of the shepherds; but it also represents the virtual linking with the llama, that is why the costume of the dancers is elegant and it recovers old signs of power.
Women and Costume
In most of our dances, women partaking just since three decades ago, but in the llama herder dance a woman are in since ancient times, because the position tasks or that of the herders to Potosi was family activities.The attire is a mixture of ancient elements, worn by the Aymara since pre-colombian and colonial times until the XIX century, with parts of the current Aymara clothes.The hat is the most typical; it is square and embroidered with teaseling made of woolen cloth; it recalls the hat that the Aymara authorities would wear.The man wears a woolen shirt, woolen cloth or silken cloth; the short woolen cloth pants a bit down under the knees; woolen string socks; typical sandals; a colorful bundling square piece tied up on his chest; a chumpi or a multicolor sash that surrounds his waist; a rope hopped in a counter sense of that of the bundling piece. In the most traditional llameradas, men also wear a plaster mask with the lips gathered in a whistling attitude.Men and women hold a sling or korawa in their right hand, a symbol of the shepherds and llama drivers, the main part of the choreography and of the clothing. Most of the "steps" include the movement of the sling pretending the driving or the throwing of stones.The women wear one or more wide long polleras (typical kinds of skirts); under the polleras are one or more underskirts or mancanchas made of white fabric; a blouse, and on it a crossed bundling piece.Colors have changed. The traditional black color is worn by the tatalas (head drivers); the group, and this is one of the innovations wears differing colors according to the fraternity and according to the festivity

Tinku


Tinku takes place on specified holidays, when the members of moieties, both men and women, fight hand-to-hand with those of the other moiety. In Bolivia, the Tinku is held around the 3rd of May and lasts for a few days. Though the conflict is largely symbolic and ceremonial, the brawl may inflict real, serious physical harm that may sometimes be fatal. Status of a specific moiety is determined by this conflict.
In the Andes, a tinku is a "ritual battle." These battles can be part of "festivities or rites of passages and are often sponsored or supervised by political and/or religious authorities." These are similar to games, like boxing, and military training exercises that are done in the United States today. They are celebratory battles that are controlled, as opposed to warfare, which is not controlled or celebratory
CARNAVAL BETANCEÑO & TINKU
The Carnaval Betanceño belongs to Bolivia´s most famous carnaval rythms. Actually it is a version of the Huayño, called Huayño Pasacalle whose letter used to be improvised and sung by the groups playing and dancing in the streets.
The village of Betanzos is located at an altitude of 3.250 ms above sea level around 45 kms from Potosi, once Bolivias most important city because of its silver mines. This region belongs to the zone most suitable for the potatoe-production. - There they grow over a hundred different types of potatoes, which, among other products, are sold on the big markets on the weekends. A few kilometres from Betanzos one can also see cave paintings and cuaternary fossiles.

For the dances of the region of Potosí there exist other tipical costumes: Women use a long black dress, richly adorned with embroidery, called Almilla. They also wear an Aguayo, used for carrying everything from vegetables to children and a shoulder cloth embroidered in vivid colours with floral motives.In order to fix their two plaits and unify them, the dancers use an adornment called Tullmas. Their hats are made of sheep wool and the unmarried women decorate them with feathers and little mirrors.
Other garments in use are the chuspitas, little hand woven bags, used for carrying coca leaves for ceremonies, but also coins or paper money. Men as well as women use the Chumpi, brightly coloured sashs in order to fix and embellish dresses and trousers.
The Chulo, is hand woven cap is only used by men. Apart from daily use in order to protect themselves against the cold wind they are an object of prestige and identity showing to everybody which community its user belongs to.
The male dancers use rough white or black troursers. Their jackets are made of the same cloth, but usually they are brightly colored and richly adorned in the front part.
The Abarca or Ojota called sandals used to be made of leather. However, nowadays the craftsmen producing them often cut them out of pieces of tyre.

Kullawada


Kullawada :
The groups of llama drivers or callawayas are an important source of the great variety of the Andean culture. In general, textiles had a great importance in the social relations and the reciprocity of the pre - Hispanic peoples, especially those of the kollas. However, the textile industry is not only a very important source of income, but also is of great iconographic and anthrophologic interest. - There is a complex symbology used in the design of the fabrics combining and stylizing natural and abstrac elements.

The textile industry also had an important impact on the social life of the pre-hispanic indigenous people, especially on the Kollas. The origin of this dance is linked for instance, the mythical story of the "ayllu kyllawa, out landed by the mallku Inti Willka".

The traditional costumary includes a hard hat (Kh'ara) with embroidery in semi-precious stones, little tassels of fancy pearls, both for men and women; a small poncho embroidered with the same elements of the hard hats adorned with round plates representing the ancient silverware.
The dancers wear a spinning wheel (k'apu), which is the most important symbol of the dance and sandals. Women wear a pollera (a typical skirt) an embroidered chest cover and on her shoulders, a small piece of bundler (lliclla) embroidered in the same fashion as the small ponchos: from the waist, bags with coins are hanging.

Morenada



Rattles, luxury and negro culture: The Morenada dancing group:
The origin of the morenada goes back to the employment of black slaves in colonial Potosi, where the miners to replace the indigenous mitayos (pawns) bought them.
The Negroes had already disembarked in America together with the conquistadores (conquerors) and the indians were impressed by the color of their skin. On founding Paria 1n 1.535, Diego de Almagro carried along with him at least 100 Negroes on his journey to Chile.
The slave trade toward Charcas, through Panama and then Buenos Aires, was a monopoly of the European companies.
According to the registers of Liverpool, it was calculated that in only a period of ten years (1.783 - 1793), 878 ships carried 300 thousand Negroes to America, which were sold for 15 million pounds.



From Potosi to Yungas:
The money value of the Negro in Charcas was measured by the age and his level of adaptation. Men and women in their fitness age would be more valuable. The creole morenos (black people) that had some kind of trade would cost more than the semi-wild untamed animals.
After their public auction the "black pieces" would initiate long expeditions from Lima or Buenos Aires towards Potosi where they were to replace the mitayo indians.
However, hunger, thirsty, cold weather, high blood pressure, the scarcity of oxygen, the rigor of the cudgel and the forced marches would foreshadow a sure death.
The compulsory work in the potosean "huayrachinas" in the Royal Mint House twisted strengths and compelled the rich quicksilver traders to get rid of them.
For their adaptation in Yungas, they were specially required for the cultivation of Coripata, Chulumani, Irupana and Chicaloma, which were the towns with most presence of Negroes.
The Murrurata farmhouse was outstanding for its ethnic lineage where the original customs were kept for a long time. It is even told of the existence of a "micro lordship" like the royalty of the dynasty of Bonifacio Kings.



Skirtishes and Rattles
It was in this way that bolivian "angolas and congos" were seen with surprise and commiseration by the quechuas and aymaras, which gave way to the dance of "Morenada" (negro dancing group).
In this context, the heavy skirtish silver of the moreno (the dancer) has diverse interpretations; it would for example, represent the opulence of the master and it would also mean that he would be wearing a wealthy garment of pearls because of the high price the quicksilver traders would pay for them.
While the classical sound of the rattles would remind the crucial marches of the internation of the "black pieces" towards Charcas, Potosi and the Yungas accompanied by a continuous squeaking of the ancient carriages and the heavy chains.



The Actors
It is still a question of getting to the bottom of the problem in a precise way, when, where and how the rutilant dance of fervors and enthusiasm of the indians and mestizos of the bolivian plateau crops up and not anymore by their own exponents, the negroes.
One hypothesis inspired on the rebellion against the caporal (the foreman for the slaves) in a vineyard; a negro girl distracted the caporal with her beauty carrying him to a heady feeling flood. It was there where they got to ridicule him, forcing him to step on grapes and move the wineries wheel turning hate into an ironic, happy and burlesque power full dance. However, Yungas does not have viticulture and viniculture tradition.

Another legend narrates as follows:
During the crossing of the trunks, the master would mark the beat in the slow walking of the negroes. The tiring was expressed by the flipping out and down of their tongue. Together with them was the caporal and behind was the shine of the armature of the masters.

Saya.Caporal









The Africans brought as slaves by force and dispossessed of all property settled in the territory of the Yungas, sharing this vast region with Aymara and mestizos. The populations of Coroico, Mururata, Chicaloma, Calacala - Coscoma and Irupana are now afroyungueña enclaves of cultural production. As time passed the original dress was covering African Aymara clothing. Since their social rent had to fight hard against colonial aggression and marginalization. For this reason many of their native cultural practices were lost, including festivals, language, spiritual sense, forms of marriage, etc..

The musical instruments that are used to execute these African rhythms are the drum major, changers (drums medium), small boxes or guanyengö (which means Penguin) and cuancha (instrument made ​​of bamboo pole, also called Raca-Raca)


.
Since their social rent, they had strongly to fight against the colonial aggression and the exclusion. For this reason its cultural practices began to disappear, including its feasts, language, spiritual sense, ways of wedding, and so on.
However, the resistance was a fact in the stronghold of dance and music. And one of these dances is Saya together with Condombe.



La Saya
The dance and the music of saya are the most original expression that they keep from their cultural origin: it is their cultural synthesis. Maybe that is why nobody can interpret it, except the afroyungueños themselves.
The musical instruments that accompany saya have been reconstructed or re-interpreted: bigger bass drum, over bass drum fife, over fife and gangingo, as an accompaniment is the Coancha.
The rhythm and the way of interpretation is quite peculiar, the beginning of every rhythm of Saya is beaten by the jingle bell of the foreman or caporal who guides the dance of the saya.
The costume is simple. The women dress like the Aymara "warmis" (women): a bright-colorful blouse adorned with ribbons. The colorful pollera (a kind of skirt), the manta (back cover) in their hand and a bore-slain hat.
Men wear a hat, a feast shirt, an Aymara slash around the waist, a bayeta (a woolen thick cloth) pants and sandals.
The troop of dancers has a guide the caporal or capataz (foreman) with a cudgel or whip in his hand, pants decorated and jingle bells at his ankles; it represents the hierarchy and order; he is not the naughty and bossy one as among the Negroes.
The role of the woman in the dance is as important as is in the community. Among them, there is the guide that orders the saya and directs the group of women.
The men simultaneously touch the bass drum and one of them strums the coancha (req'e). The women sing and dance, moving their hips, shoulders and shaking their hands, in counter pointing or dialoguing with the men.
The choreography does not seem at all the rhythm of the caporals. Those who confuse these rhythms unfortunately have never seen or heard the dance and music of saya. There are no shades or similitudes, saya is saya, and caporal is just caporal.



The Tundiqui or Negritos
When in the beginning the Negroes shared their territory, the culture and the historical time with the Aymara, both unknown, acknowledged they as part of the exploitation work.
But it was the fight for liberty that united the have-nots. At the same time, history and geography give away to a dialog among cultures.
The Aymara, a free man from his origins, always admired the Negroes for their patience and rebelliousness. The Aymara excellent hosts, acknowledged a Negro, as a struggle brother for liberty. As a sample, we can mention the legend of Samba Salvito who had among his friends, many indigenous Aymara from Yungas